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|Evidence suggests that longer-term exposure to air pollutants over years confers higher risks of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than shorter-term exposure. One explanation is that the cumulative adverse effects that develop over longer durations lead to the genesis of chronic disease. Preliminary epidemiological and clinical evidence suggests that air pollution may contribute to the development of hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Our results suggest that exposure to air pollutants, especially traffic-related pollutants, may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and possibly of hypertension.